Tổng quan các chủ đề
- GIA ĐINH – Cochinchina
- 1. AUTHOR
WRITER – PhD. in history NGUYỄN MẠNH HÙNG !
we call En-VersiGoo – was founded by PhD. Hung in September 2019 to convey all his research articles over 40 years ago to serve Readers in the world who want to study about the history and the culture of Vietnam.
- 2. CONTENT
I/ Physical Geography
The province of Giadinh [Gia Định] is situated in the east of Cochin-China and extends along the river Saigon [Sài Gòn] for a distance of about 100 kilometers, from the boundary of the province of Tayninh [Tây Ninh] to the bay of Ganh Rai, on the East Sea.
The towns of Saigon [Sài Gòn] and Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn] which used to belong to the province of Giadinh [Gia Định], have been separated from it since they became Municipalities. The superficial area of the province is rather more than 180.000 hectares.
The provinces bordering on Giadinh [Gia Định] are:
- in the north, the province of Thudaumot [Thủ Đầu Một]
- in the east, the provinces of Bienhoa [Biên Hoà] and Baria [Bà Rịa]
- in the south and west, the provinces of Gocong [Gò Công]
- Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn] and Tayninh [Tây Ninh].
II/ Administrative Geography
At the head of the province (as in all the other provinces of Cochin-China) there is the chief administrator of the province, assisted by a deputy-administrator, who represents him when necessary, under the direct authority of the Governor of the Colony.
The chief of the province is assisted by a consulting council, called the council of the province, and under the immediate orders of the administrator are the administrative delegates, the chiefs and deputy-chiefs of the cantons, and the Mayors of the districts.
The province of Giadinh [Gia Định] comprises 4 delegations (Govap [Gò Vấp], Thuduc [Thủ Đức], Hocmon [Hốc Môn], Nhabe [Nhà Bè]), 17 cantons and 166 districts.
III/ Economical Geography
The territory of Giadinh [Gia Định] is divided into two distinct paits.
a) The low lying districts comprise the whole of the delta of the river Saigon, which extends practically from Saigon [Sài Gòn] to the sea.
b) The high lying sandy districts extend from Saigon [Sài Gòn] to the boundaries of the provinces of Tayninh [Tây Ninh] and Bienhoa [Biên Hoà].
These two natural divisions correspond with two distinct agricultural districts by the nature of their productions. The low lying districts are essentially rice growing ones. But the districts near the sea are flooded with brackish water and covered with paludal forests; chiefly mangroves.
The higher districts are almost entirely cultivated, excepting the marshy region of Cau An Ha [Cầu An Hạ]. Around the large towns of Giadinh [Gia Định], Govap [Gò Vấp], Thuduc [Thủ Đức] and Hocmon [Hốc Môn], the land has been very much split up into small lots, and has attained a great value.
The chief cultivation is that of rice, sugar-cane and tobacco. The cultivation of rice is declining year by year, making way for the more remunerative planting of sugar-cane and tobacco. Among secondary cultivation is that of market gardening, the products of which are easily disposed of in the markets of Saigon [Sài Gòn] and Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn], fruit-trees’ pineapple, maize, betel-nut, cabbage palm, tea, cocoa, pepper, etc. Finally, one of the principal sources of agricultural wealth are the fairly important hevea (rubber) plantations.
This is chiefly represented by the numerous electrical and steam decortication machines, also by sugar refineries, saw-mills, some dye-works and potteries. There are, furthermore, granite and laterite quarries, paper-mills, and the large distillery at Thuduc [Thủ Đức], and the fishing industry on the coast.
ROADS AND TRANSPORT
The province of Giadinh [Gia Định] has an important net-work of roads, totalling over 500 km of classified routes, and over 1200km. of rural metalled roads or non classified embankments.
The country is traversed by a railway from Saigon [Sài Gòn] to Nhatrang [Nha Trang] (Annam [An Nam]), by an electric tramway from Saigon [Sài Gòn] to Govap, and a steam tramway from Govap to Hocmon, and from Govap [Gò Vấp] to Laithieu [Lái Thiêu] (Thudaumot [Thủ Dầu Một]).
The province has also numerous motor car services. Furthermore, the transport by water is assured by the “Messageries Fluviales” company of Cochin-China, between Saigon [Sài Gòn], Cape St. Jacques and Baria [Bà Rịa], calling at An Thit [An Thít] and Cangio [Cần Giờ].
There is nothing of special interest to be mentioned on this subject.
There are just a few historical monuments to be visited:
1) The French memorial erected at Chi Hoa [Chí Hoà], in commemoration of the battle of that name.
2) The tomb of sub-lieutenant Lareniere of the French navy, placed close to the Tayninh [Tây Ninh] road.
3) The tomb of the Bishop of Adran, erected by the emperor Gia Long [Gia Long], as a testimony of pious gratitude to Monseigneur Pigneau de Bahaine.
4) The pagoda and tomb of Le Van Duyet [Lê Văn Duyệt], called the Great Eunuch, the emperor’s Marshal and former Annamite governor of Cochin-China (facing the town-hall of Giadinh [Gia Định]).
5) The tomb of Le Van Phong [Lê Văn Phong], brother of Le Van Duyet [Lê Văn Duyệt] (in the village of Tan Son Nhut [Tân Sơn Nhứt]).
6) The tomb of Vo Tanh [Võ Tánh], also a Marshal of Gia Long [Gia Long] (in the village of Phu Nhuan [Phú Nhuận]). 7) The tomb of Vo Di Nguy [Võ Di Nguy], companion in arms of Gia Long [Gia Long] (in the village of Phu Nhuan [Phú Nhuận]).
Giadinh [Gia Định] is the name which the first Annamites gave to that part of the country through which the river Saigon [Sài Gòn] flows.
Later on, the emperor Gia Long [Gia Long] officially gave that name to the whole of the territory between the rivers Saigon and Mekong, and of which Saigon was the chief town. His successor, Minh Mang [Minh Mạng], when organising Lower Cochin-China, gave the same name to the province which includes within its confines the present provinces of Tayninh [Tây Ninh], Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn], Gocong [Gò Công], and part of the province of Tanan [Tân An].
This province kept its name during the first years of the French occupation, but dating from 1871, it was subject to various territorial alterations. Reduced roughly to its present size, the province was named alternately by the name of the chief town: Superintendance of Saigon [Sài Gòn], and district of Saigon [Sài Gòn]. In 1874 the head-quarters of the district were transferred to Binh Hoa Xa [Bình Hoà Xá], a village on the outskirts, on the left bank of the river ‘Avalanche” and is still at the present time the chief town of the province.
Finally, since 1889, the designation of district has been changed to that of province. Without touching upon any details previous to the occupation of the colony by the French, it may be said that the history of the province of Giadinh [Gia Định] is intimately connected with the history of Cochin-China. This circumstance is explained by its georgraphical situation on the estuary of the river Saigon [Sài Gòn].
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